Analysis of the Clinical Features of Tracheobronchial Fungal Infections with Tumor-Like Lesions.
Respiration. 2019 May 08;:1-8
Authors: He R, Hu C, Niu R
BACKGROUND: Tracheobronchial fungal infections (TBFI) cause life-threatening complications in immunocompromised hosts but are rarely reported. Misdiagnosis and delayed antifungal treatment are associated with the high mortality rate of patients with TBFI.
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the bronchoscopic features of TBFI and their roles in the early diagnosis of TBFI.
METHODS: The demographic, clinical, radiologic, and bronchoscopic data of 53 patients diagnosed with TBFI in our department during a 15-year period were retrospectively analyzed.
RESULTS: Most of the TBFI patients were male, and mass was the most common radiologic abnormality. Obvious predilection in primary bronchus distributions was observed. 41.9% of the 43 Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (AT) patients, 70% of the 10 tracheobronchial mucormycosis (TM) patients, and 100% of the 3 endobronchial cryptococcosis patients had been misdiagnosed as having cancer on bronchoscopy because of the presence of tumor-like lesions. The most common features of AT were bronchial occlusion with a mass or mucosal necrosis, bronchial stenosis with mucosal hyperplasia, or uneven mucosa. The main descriptions of TM were bronchial stenosis or obstruction due to mucosal necrosis, uneven mucosa, or a mass. The endoscopic characteristics of endobronchial cryptococcosis included occlusion due to uneven mucosa or mass, or external compressive stricture.
CONCLUSION: Immunocompromised patients and immunocompetent patients with underlying disease displaying tumor-like lesions on bronchoscopy should be differentially diagnosed with cancer. Bronchial biopsy is indispensable for the early diagnosis of TBFI.
PMID: 31067555 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]