Azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus: A global phenomenon originating in the environment?
Med Mal Infect. 2019 Aug 28;:
Authors: Jeanvoine A, Rocchi S, Bellanger AP, Reboux G, Millon L
Aspergillus fumigatus is the predominant etiological agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA), a difficult-to-manage fungal disease associated with a high case fatality rate. Azole antifungals, particularly voriconazole, have significantly improved the survival rate of patients with IA. However, the clinical advances made possible through the use of medical azoles could be threatened by the emergence of azole-resistant strains which has been reported in an ever-increasing number of countries over the last 10 years. The major resistance mechanism, that combines point mutation(s) in the coding sequence of cyp51A gene and an insertion of a tandem repeat in the promoter region of this gene which leads to its overexpression (TR34/L98H and TR46/Y121F/T289A), is presumed to be of environmental origin. However, the emergence of clinical and environmental azole-resistant strains without the cyp51A gene mutation suggests that other mechanisms could also be responsible for azole resistance (for example, overexpression of efflux pumps). The development of resistance may be linked to either long-term use of azole antifungals in patients with chronic aspergillosis (patient-acquired route) or selection pressure of the fungicides in the environment (environmental route). The fungicide-driven route could be responsible for resistance in azole-naive patients with IA. This literature review aims to summarize recent findings, focusing on the current situation of azole-resistance in A. fumigatus, and provides better understanding of the importance of the environmental route in resistance acquisition.
PMID: 31472992 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]