Host-Pathogen Interactions Mediated by MDR Transporters in Fungi: As Pleiotropic as it Gets!
Genes (Basel). 2018 Jul 02;9(7):
Authors: Cavalheiro M, Pais P, Galocha M, Teixeira MC
Fungal infections caused by Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus species are an increasing problem worldwide, associated with very high mortality rates. The successful prevalence of these human pathogens is due to their ability to thrive in stressful host niche colonization sites, to tolerate host immune system-induced stress, and to resist antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the key role played by multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters, belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC), and the major facilitator superfamilies (MFS), in mediating fungal resistance to pathogenesis-related stresses. These clearly include the extrusion of antifungal drugs, with C. albicans CDR1 and MDR1 genes, and corresponding homologs in other fungal pathogens, playing a key role in this phenomenon. More recently, however, clues on the transcriptional regulation and physiological roles of MDR transporters, including the transport of lipids, ions, and small metabolites, have emerged, linking these transporters to important pathogenesis features, such as resistance to host niche environments, biofilm formation, immune system evasion, and virulence. The wider view of the activity of MDR transporters provided in this review highlights their relevance beyond drug resistance and the need to develop therapeutic strategies that successfully face the challenges posed by the pleiotropic nature of these transporters.
PMID: 30004464 [PubMed]