The myriad challenges of respiratory fungal infection in cystic fibrosis.
Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 Jul 10;:
Authors: Tracy MC, Moss RB
Fungal infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recognized challenge, with many areas requiring further investigation. Consensus definitions exist for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillus in CF, but the full scope of clinically relevant non-allergic fungal disease in CF-asymptomatic colonization, transient or chronic infection localized to endobronchial mucus plugs or airway tissue, and invasive disease-is yet to be clearly defined. Recent advances in mycological culture and non-culture identification have expanded the list of both potential pathogens and community commensals in the lower respiratory tract. Here we aim to outline the current understanding of fungal presence in the CF respiratory tract, risk factors for acquiring fungi, host-pathogen interactions that influence the role of fungi from bystander to pathogen, advances in the diagnostic approaches to isolating and identifying fungi in CF respiratory samples, challenges of classifying clinical phenotypes of CF patients with fungi, and current treatment approaches. Development and validation of biomarkers characteristic of different fungal clinical phenotypes, and controlled trials of antifungal agents in well-characterized target populations, remain central challenges to surmount and goals to be achieved.
PMID: 29992775 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]