Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Invasive Fungal Sinusitis in Cancer and Transplant Patients.

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Invasive Fungal Sinusitis in Cancer and Transplant Patients.

Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2019 Nov 26;21(12):53

Authors: Fung M, Babik J, Humphreys IM, Davis GE

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Modern advances in oncologic and end-organ therapies have led to an increase in immunocompromised patients and a corresponding rise in acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFS). Here, we present a comprehensive medical and surgical approach to the diagnosis and management of immunocompromised cancer and transplant patients with AIFS.
RECENT FINDINGS: Aspergillus and Mucorales are the most common fungi to cause AIFS, though atypical fungal pathogens have been implicated particularly among patients on azole prophylaxis. Symptoms present in the majority of AIFS cases include fever, nasal congestion, and facial swelling. Nasal endoscopy and radiology are adjuncts to clinical exam with the gold standard diagnostic test still being histopathology, though molecular testing such as panfungal PCR is playing a larger role. The treatment of AIFS requires surgery, antifungal therapy, and reversal of immunosuppression. We recommend initiation of liposomal amphotericin B as an empiric therapy for AIFS, transitioned to targeted therapy when/if a fungal pathogen is identified. Goals of surgery include diagnostic sampling and debridement of necrotic tissue. Equally, if not more important, is reversal of underlying immune suppression. Immune-stimulating therapies hold promise for reducing mortality, but require additional study. Despite improvements in medical and surgical management of AIFS, mortality continues to approach 50%. Early diagnosis of this disease entity followed by aggressive surgical and medical management are important, including reversal of the underlying immunosuppression.

PMID: 31773398 [PubMed]

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