Simultaneous occurrence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: case report and literature review.

Simultaneous occurrence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: case report and literature review.

BMC Cancer. 2020 Jan 06;20(1):15

Authors: Shao L, Jiang L, Wu S, Yu L, Wang L, Huang X

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients with lymphoma are at risk for developing pulmonary opportunistic infections due to immunocompromise. However, clinical reports of concurrent lymphoma and opportunistic infection at presentation are rare and often confined to single cases. A delayed diagnosis of either opportunistic infection or lymphoma usually occurs in this complex situation. Here, we report such a case and analyse 18 similar cases searched in the PubMed database to deepen clinicians’ understanding.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 48-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of fever, cough and emaciation. High-resolution computed tomography revealed bilateral cavitating lesions of different sizes. Aspergillus fumigatus complex was identified from a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid culture. However, antifungal treatment combined with multiple rounds of antibacterial therapy was unsuccessful, and the patient’s lung lesions continued to deteriorate. Multiple puncture biopsies finally confirmed the coexistence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Despite the initiation of combination chemotherapy, the patient died of progressive respiratory failure.
CONCLUSIONS: Synchronous pulmonary lymphoma and simultaneous opportunistic infection is rare and usually lacks specific clinical and imaging manifestations. Lymphoma should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis of patients with an opportunistic infection when treatment fails or other symptoms are present that could be considered “atypical” for the condition. Tissue biopsy is the gold standard, and multiple biopsies are essential for making the final diagnosis and should be performed upon early suspicion.

PMID: 31906982 [PubMed – in process]

Source: Industry