Allergic aspergillosis in asthmatic patients in a tertiary hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

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Allergic aspergillosis in asthmatic patients in a tertiary hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

J Lab Physicians. 2019 Oct-Dec;11(4):373-381

Authors: Al-Saleh AA, Farid E, Makhlooq M, Mahdi M, Reda M, Zaid T, Al-Alawi S, Panjwani A, Salman N, Ali HR, Bindayna K

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Aspergillosis is an alarming complication in asthma, leading to worsening symptoms and irreversible lung damage. It is underdiagnosed among asthmatics worldwide, especially in our geographical region.
AIM: This research was aimed to shed some light on the prevalence of Aspergillus sensitization and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthmatic patients in the Kingdom of Bahrain.
IMPORTANCE: This project has never been conducted in the region and hopefully will lead to a better care for asthmatics.
METHODOLOGY: Our study population consisted of adult outpatients visiting the pulmonary and chest diseases clinic at Al-Salmaniya Medical Complex (SMC); the main inclusion condition was manifesting respiratory distress symptoms related to one or more respiratory tract diseases. 152 individuals were selected; the study group consisted of 119 asthmatic patients manifesting respiratory distress. The control group consisted of 33 nonasthmatic patients that manifested pulmonary distress symptoms due to respiratory tract diseases other than asthma like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchitis, among others. Sera samples were collected in SMC and analyzed via Phadia-250 fluoro-enzyme-immunoassay to determine the levels of Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgE. The rAsp f1 antigen was used against IgE.
RESULTS: Our results indicated a 16% prevalence of A. fumigatus sensitization in asthmatics; also, 75.6% of asthmatics were sensitized to pollen grains, and 22.3% reported one or many food allergies. Furthermore, details of patients with significant levels of A. fumigatus- specific IgE were analyzed, and ABPA prevalence was estimated to be 10.1% in asthmatics.
CONCLUSION: Increasing awareness toward these indolent diseases is required, as well as, more efforts in determining the burden of aspergillosis in other parts of the region.

PMID: 31929707 [PubMed]

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