Control of Actin and Calcium for Chitin Synthase Delivery to the Hyphal Tip of Aspergillus.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2020 Jan 24;:
Authors: Takeshita N
Filamentous fungi are covered by a cell wall consisting mainly of chitin and glucan. The synthesis of chitin, a β-1,4-linked homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is essential for hyphal morphogenesis. Fungal chitin synthases are integral membrane proteins that have been classified into seven classes. ChsB, a class III chitin synthase, is known to play a key role in hyphal tip growth and has been used here as a model to understand the cell biology of cell wall biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans. Chitin synthases are transported on secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane for new cell wall synthesis. Super-resolution localization imaging as a powerful biophysical approach indicated dynamics of the Spitzenkörper where spatiotemporally regulated exocytosis and cell extension, whereas high-speed pulse-chase imaging has revealed ChsB transport mechanism mediated by kinesin-1 and myosin-5. In addition, live imaging analysis showed correlations among intracellular Ca2+ levels, actin assembly, and exocytosis in growing hyphal tips. This suggests that pulsed Ca2+ influxes coordinate the temporal control of actin assembly and exocytosis, which results in stepwise cell extension. It is getting clear that turgor pressure and cell wall pressure are involved in the activation of Ca2+ channels for Ca2+ oscillation and cell extension. Here the cell wall synthesis and tip growth meet again.
PMID: 31974757 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]