Aetiological agents for pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis: An observational study from a tertiary care centre in northern India.

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Aetiological agents for pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis: An observational study from a tertiary care centre in northern India.

Indian J Med Res. 2020 Jan;151(1):65-70

Authors: Arvind B, Medigeshi GR, Kapil A, Xess I, Singh U, Lodha R, Kabra SK

Abstract
Background & objectives: Pulmonary disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). The infection occurs with a unique spectrum of bacterial pathogens that are usually acquired in an age-dependent fashion. The objective of this study was to find out the aetiological agents in respiratory specimens from children with CF during pulmonary exacerbation and relate with demographic variables.
Methods: In this observational study, airway secretions from children (n=104) with CF presenting with pulmonary exacerbations were collected and tested for bacteria, fungi, mycobacteria and viral pathogens using appropriate laboratory techniques. The frequencies of isolation of various organisms were calculated and associated with various demographic profiles.
Results: Bacteria were isolated in 37 (35.5%) and viral RNA in 27 (29.3%) children. Pseudomonas was the most common bacteria grown in 31 (29.8%) followed by Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) in three (2.8%) patients. Among viruses, Rhinovirus was the most common, identified in 16 (17.4%) samples followed by coronavirus in four (4.3%). Fungi and mycobacteria were isolated from 23 (22.1%) and four (3.8%) children, respectively. Aspergillus flavus was the most common fungus isolated in 13 (12.5%) children.
Interpretation & conclusions: Pseudomonas was the most common organism isolated during exacerbation. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria were not isolated, whereas infection with Bcc and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was observed, which could probably have a role in CF morbidity. Polymicrobial infections were associated with severe exacerbations.

PMID: 32134016 [PubMed – in process]

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