Management of osteoarticular fungal infections in the setting of immunodeficiency.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2020 Mar 26;:
Authors: Papachristou SG, Iosifidis E, Sipsas NV, Gamaletsou MN, Walsh TJ, Roilides E
Introduction: Osteoarticular fungal infections (OAFIs) complicate the clinical course of high-risk patients, including immunosuppressed individuals. Their management, however, despite being intricate, is governed by evidence arising from sub-optimal quality research, such as case series. Guidelines are scarce and when present result in recommendations based on low quality evidence. Furthermore, the differences between the management of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients are not distinct. This is a narrative review after a literature search in PubMed, up to November 2019.Areas Covered: The major fungal groups causing osteomyelitis and/or arthritis are Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., non-Aspergillus filamentous fungi, non-Candida yeasts and endemic dimorphic fungi. Their epidemiology is briefly analyzed with emphasis on immunodeficiency and other risk factors. Management of OAFIs includes appropriate antifungal drug therapy (liposomal amphotericin B, triazoles or echinocandins), local surgery and immunotherapy for primary immunodeficiencies. Cessation of immunosuppressive drugs is also mandated.Expert Opinion: Management of OAFIs includes affordable and available options and approaches. However, research on therapeutic practices is urgently required to be further improved, due to the rarity of affected patients. Evolution is expected to translate into novel antifungal drugs, less invasive and precise surgical approaches and targeted enhancement of immunoregulatory pathways in defense of challenging fungal pathogens.
PMID: 32213145 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]