Successful treatment of Aspergillus empyema using combined intrathoracic and intravenous administration of voriconazole: A case report.

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Successful treatment of Aspergillus empyema using combined intrathoracic and intravenous administration of voriconazole: A case report.

J Infect Chemother. 2020 May 12;:

Authors: Takatsuka H, Yamazaki S, Watanabe A, Yokoyama I, Suzuki T, Kamei K, Ishii I

Abstract
Aspergillus empyema is treated with either systemic administration of antifungal drugs or surgery, but the mortality rate is very high. Here, we report a case of Aspergillus empyema successfully treated using combined intrathoracic and intravenous administration of voriconazole (VRCZ). Treatment success was achieved by monitoring VRCZ plasma trough concentration. The patient was a 71-year-old Japanese woman diagnosed with Aspergillus empyema whom we started on intravenous administration of VRCZ. Although penetration of VRCZ into the pleural effusion was confirmed, the level was below 1 μg/mL, which is the minimum inhibitory concentration for Aspergillus fumigatus determined by antifungal susceptibility testing in pleural effusion culture. Therefore, we initiated combination therapy with intrathoracic and intravenous administration of VRCZ. VRCZ 200 mg was first dissolved in 50-100 mL of saline and administered into the thoracic cavity via a chest tube. The chest tube was clamped for 5-6 h, and then VRCZ solution was excreted though the chest tube. When a single dose of the VRCZ was administered into the intrathoracic space, the plasma concentration before intravenous administration increased from 1.45 μg/mL on day 27 to 1.53 μg/mL on day 28. Although intravenous administration was continued, the VRCZ plasma trough concentration decreased to 1.36 μg/mL on day 29. We therefore decided on an intrathoracic administration schedule of 2-3 times a week. Intrathoracic administration was performed 14 times in total until fenestration surgery on day 64. Our case suggests that combined intrathoracic and intravenous administration of VRCZ may be a valid treatment option for Aspergillus empyema.

PMID: 32414688 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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