Pneumocystis pneumonia after lung transplantation: A retrospective multicenter study.

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Pneumocystis pneumonia after lung transplantation: A retrospective multicenter study.

Respir Med. 2020 May 12;169:106019

Authors: Delbove A, Alami H, Tissot A, Dégot T, Liberge R, Mornex JF, Murris M, Dromer C, Claustre J, Boussaud V, Brugière O, Le Pavec J, Nicolas A, Danner-Boucher I, Magnan A, Roussel JC, Blanc FX

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation (LT) is an identified risk factor for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). However, PCP management and outcomes remain poorly described in LT recipients and PCP incidence is rarely documented in this population.
METHODS: PCP episodes that occurred in 9 French LT centers between January 2010 and October 2017 were included in this analysis. PCP was defined as compatible clinical and radiologic findings associated with fungal identification.
RESULTS: Forty-seven PCP were included. The annual incidence rate of PCP was 2.7/1000 patients/year. Patients had a mean age of 53 ± 14 years. Median time from LT was 2.4 ± 3.0 years. Sixty-five percent of patients were not on prophylaxis at the time of PCP while all patients were receiving steroids at the time of PCP. Diagnosis was obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage in 91% (direct examination: 47%, PCR: 62%). The majority of patients were treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (78%). Fifty-five percent of patients were hospitalized in ICU for organ failure (for which non-invasive ventilation was used for 21% and mechanical ventilation for 23%). Mortality rate was 15% at day 28 and reached 23% at day 90. Mortality was associated with decreased FEV1, everolimus treatment, Pseudomonas aeruginosa coinfection, fungal coinfection (especially Aspergillus sp.), mechanical ventilation and vasopressors. PCP primary prophylaxis, steroid modification during PCP and the number of immunosuppressive molecules were not associated with mortality.
CONCLUSION: PCP is associated with a high mortality in LT. Our data suggest the need for a lifetime PCP prophylaxis in LT recipients. The benefit of adjuvant steroids remains unclear.

PMID: 32442112 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

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