Spectrum of pulmonary fungal pathogens, associated risk factors, and anti-fungal susceptibility pattern among persons with presumptive tuberculosis at Gombe, Nigeria.

Spectrum of pulmonary fungal pathogens, associated risk factors, and anti-fungal susceptibility pattern among persons with presumptive tuberculosis at Gombe, Nigeria.

Int J Mycobacteriol. 2020 Apr-Jun;9(2):144-149

Authors: Sani FM, Uba A, Tahir F, Abdullahi IN, Adekola HA, Mustapha J, Nwofe J, Usman Y, Daneji IM

Abstract
Background: Pulmonary mycosis (PM) poses a great diagnostic challenge due to the lack of pathognomonic and radiological features, especially in the absence of mycology laboratory tests. This study was aimed to isolate, phenotypically identify, determine the prevalence of pulmonary fungal pathogens and antifungal susceptibility pattern of isolates of presumptive tuberculosis (PTB) patients attending Federal Teaching Hospital (FTH) Gombe, Nigeria.
Methods: After ethical approval, three consecutive early morning sputa were collected from 216 participants with presumptive of PTB attending FTH Gombe, between May 2, 2017 and May 30, 2018. Samples were processed using standard mycological staining, microscopy, sugar biochemistry, and antifungal susceptibility test protocols. Sociodemographic variables and risk factors of pulmonary fungal infection were assessed through structured questionnaires. Pulmonary fungal infection was defined by the positive culture in at least two sputa. PTB was defined by Genexpert® nested polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Of the 216 participants, 19.9% had PTB and 73.6% had pulmonary fungal pathogens. Among the isolated pulmonary fungal pathogens, Aspergillus fumigatus made the highest occurrence, while 6.5% had PTB-fungal co-infection. No significant association existed between the prevalence of PM with age and sex of participants (P < 0.05). Cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 15.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-268.8]), prolong antibiotic use (aOR = 77.9 [95% CI: 4.7-1283]) and possession of domestic pet (aOR = 77.9 [95% CI: 4.7-1283]) were significant risk factors of PM (P < 0.05). Penicillium citrinum, Mucor spp. and Aspergillus flavus are more susceptible to voriconazole, and Candida albicans was found to be more susceptible to Nystatin. Of the 159 fungal isolates, 92.5% were resistant to fluconazole.
Conclusion: Findings from this study revealed high level pulmonary fungal pathogens, especially among PTB patients. A majority of fungal isolates were resistant to fluconazole. It’s recommended that persons should do away with or minimize risk factors for pulmonary fungal pathogens identified in this study.

PMID: 32474535 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Source: Industry