Fungal endocarditis in transplant recipients: a systematic review.
Mycoses. 2020 Jun 18;:
Authors: Ioannou P, Papakitsou I, Kofteridis DP
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. Moreover, Fungal Infective Endocarditis (FIE) is a rare infection that carries a higher mortality than bacterial IE in normal host, while in transplant recipients may be even higher. The purpose of this study was to systemically review all published cases of FIE in solid organ and allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients, describe the epidemiology, microbiology, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of these infections, and to identify risk factors for mortality by FIE.
METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library (through 20th May 2020) for studies providing epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and treatment data and outcomes of FIE in transplant recipients was performed.
RESULTS: A total of 60 studies, containing data of 72 patients, were included. The most common transplants were those of the kidney and the liver, while the commonest causative pathogen was Aspergillus. Mitral valve was the commonest infected intracardiac site, followed by mural endocardium. Diagnosis was made with transthoracic echocardiography in 44.3%, while the diagnosis was made at autopsy in 37.3%. Embolic phenomena were the commonest clinical presentation, followed by fever, heart failure and endophthalmitis. Amphotericin B, voriconazole and caspofungin were the commonest antifungals used for treatment of FIE. Clinical cure was noted in 26.9%, while overall mortality was 78.6%. Amphotericin B or caspofungin use were negatively associated with overall mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review thoroughly describes IE in transplant recipients and provides information on epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and outcomes.
PMID: 32557938 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]