Flavonoids isolated from the South African weed Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) have pharmacological activity against uropathogens.

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Flavonoids isolated from the South African weed Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) have pharmacological activity against uropathogens.

BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020 Jul 23;20(1):233

Authors: Omokhua-Uyi AG, Abdalla MA, Leonard CM, Aro A, Uyi OO, Van Staden J, McGaw LJ

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by opportunistic pathogens are among the leading health challenges globally. Most available treatment options are failing as a result of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects. Natural sources such as plants may serve as promising alternatives.
METHODS: Compounds were isolated from the South African weed Chromolaena odorata through column chromatography. Purified compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity using the p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (INT) colorimetric method, against uropathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. Anti-biofilm, anti-adhesion and metabolic inhibition activities were investigated against selected strains. Safety of the compounds was determined against Vero monkey kidney, C3A human liver and colon (Caco2) cells.
RESULTS: Four compounds identified as pectolinaringenin (1), (±)-4′,5,7-trimethoxy flavanone (2), 5-hydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (3) and 3,5,7-trihydroxy-4′-methoxyflavone) (4) were isolated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) varied between 0.016 and 0.25 mg/mL. Compounds 2 and 3 showed promising antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. fumigatus and C. neoformans with MIC between 0.016 and 0.125 mg/mL, comparable to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B used as positive controls. Compounds 2 and 3 showed good anti-biofilm and metabolic inhibition activities against E. coli and S. aureus but weak anti-adhesion activity against the organisms. Low toxicity with selectivity indexes between 1 and 12.625 were recorded with the compounds, indicating that the compounds were rather toxic to the microbial strains and not to the human and animal cells.
CONCLUSION: Pharmacological activities displayed by compounds 2 and 3 isolated from C. odorata and low toxicity recorded credits it as a potential lead for the development of useful prophylactic treatments and anti-infective drugs against UTIs. Although known compounds, this is the first time these compounds have been isolated from the South African weed C. odorata and tested for antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, metabolic inhibition and anti-adhesion activities.

PMID: 32703212 [PubMed – in process]

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