Molecular, physiological, and biochemical characterization of extracellular lipase production by Aspergillus niger using submerged fermentation.

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Molecular, physiological, and biochemical characterization of extracellular lipase production by Aspergillus niger using submerged fermentation.

PeerJ. 2020;8:e9425

Authors: Alabdalall AH, ALanazi NA, A Aldakeel S, AbdulAzeez S, Borgio JF

Abstract
Background: Extracellular production of fungal lipases especially the lipases obtained from the Aspergilli has gained immense interest in recent years due to its diverse biotechnological applications. In this study, we focused on determining the fermentation parameters required for the optimal lipase production.
Methods: A total of 256 fungal isolates were obtained from oil seeds. From each genus, one isolate was selected to evaluate lipase production using phenol red and tributyrin plate assays. Lipase activity was estimated using the spectrophotometric pNPP hydrolysis assay. The highest lipase producer isolates were identified using 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The genetic variability was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and the dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages method. The isolates were examined in a submerged fermentation culture (Smf) to measure the effect of temperature, pH, incubation time, carbon source, nitrogen source, inoculum volume, and lipid source on lipase production.
Results: Eleven isolates belonging to the genus Aspergillus were analyzed for lipase production where they were found to be the highest lipase producers among various fungal genera. All the tested isolates were identified as A. niger using 18s rRNA sequencing. Genetic diversity was evaluated among all of the studied A. niger isolates using RAPD primers. The RAPD primers were used to amplify 285 loci, of which five were polymorphic (1.75%) and seven were monomorphic (2.45%). Thus, a high level of genetic diversity was observed among all isolates. The tributyrin test and the lipase activity assay identified five strains of A. niger as high lipase producers, and their optimal enzyme activities were 709.74, 532.54, 735.64, 794.62, and 787.69 U/ml. The optimal conditions for lipase production were as follows: 40 °C, pH 7.5, 1% fructose as the carbon source, 1% yeast extract as the nitrogen source, 2% palm oil, 2.5 × 107 spores/ml suspension, and 3 days of incubation.
Conclusions: The current study provides a comprehensive characterization of the optimal conditions, which are essential to enhance lipase production in five A. niger isolates.

PMID: 32704444 [PubMed]

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