Functional heterogeneity of alveolar macrophage population based on expression of CXCL2.
Sci Immunol. 2020 Aug 07;5(50):
Authors: Xu-Vanpala S, Deerhake ME, Wheaton JD, Parker ME, Juvvadi PR, MacIver N, Ciofani M, Shinohara ML
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the major lung-resident macrophages and have contradictory functions. AMs maintain tolerance and tissue homeostasis, but they also initiate strong inflammatory responses. However, such opposing roles within the AM population were not known to be simultaneously generated and coexist. Here, we uncovered heterogeneous AM subpopulations generated in response to two distinct pulmonary fungal infections, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus Some AMs are bona fide sentinel cells that produce chemoattractant CXCL2, which also serves as a marker for AM heterogeneity, in the context of pulmonary fungal infections. However, other AMs do not produce CXCL2 and other pro-inflammatory molecules. Instead, they highly produce anti-inflammatory molecules, including interleukin-10 (IL-10) and complement component 1q (C1q). These two AM subpopulations have distinct metabolic profiles and phagocytic capacities. We report that polarization of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory AM subpopulations is regulated at both epigenetic and transcriptional levels and that these AM subpopulations are generally highly plastic. Our studies have uncovered the role of C1q expression in programming and sustaining anti-inflammatory AMs. Our finding of the AM heterogeneity upon fungal infections suggests a possible pharmacological intervention target to treat fungal infections by tipping the balance of AM subpopulations.
PMID: 32769172 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]