Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis misdiagnosed as recurrent pneumonia.

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis misdiagnosed as recurrent pneumonia.

Asia Pac Allergy. 2020 Jul;10(3):e27

Authors: Jiang N, Xiang L

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a disease of the lungs resulting from a hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease remains underdiagnosed and as many as 57% of patients are misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, pulmonary abscess in China. Here we report the case of a 13-year-old girl with ABPA who presented with productive cough, wheezing, bronchiectasis and decline in lung function, total IgE was 25,180 KU/L, Aspergillus-specific IgE was 34.7 kUA/L. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (CT) showed infiltration, central bronchiectasis, and high-attenuation mucus in the left lower lobe and lingula. On bronchoscopy, a large amount of purulent material and brownish sputum plugs were seen. This case has been diagnosed as pneumonia 3 times before the ABPA diagnosis. For the treatment, corticosteroid (prednisone 0.5 mg/kg/day) plus itraconazole (200 mg, twice a day) were initiated. The girl responded well to the therapy. Two weeks later, she was free of symptoms. Lung function nearly improved to normal. One month later, peripheral eosinophil percentage and IgE decreased to 0.7% and 1,3451 KU/L (46% reduction), respectively. However, the trend of A. fumigatus-specific IgE persistently increased during treatment (from 34.7 KU/L to above 100 KU/L). Chest CT showed improvement in pulmonary infiltration. The present case emphasizes the importance of considering the diagnosis of ABPA in children with uncontrolled pneumonia, hypereosinophilia, and bronchiectasis with a previous history of asthma. Total serum IgE is a useful marker of disease activity and success of therapy while the serum A. fumigatus-specific IgE has limited utility in the follow-up of patients with ABPA.

PMID: 32789112 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Source: Industry