Constituents Leached by Tomato Seeds Regulate the Behavior of Root-Knot Nematodes and Their Antifungal Effects Against Seed-Borne Fungi.

Constituents Leached by Tomato Seeds Regulate the Behavior of Root-Knot Nematodes and Their Antifungal Effects Against Seed-Borne Fungi.

J Agric Food Chem. 2020 Aug 06;:

Authors: Kuang MS, Liu TT, Wu HB, Lan HP, Wen YX, Wu HB, Li XM

Abstract
Germinating seeds can release diverse phytochemicals that repel, inhibit or kill pathogens such as root-knot nematodes and seed-borne fungi. However, little is known about the composition of these phytochemicals and their effects on pathogens. In this study, we demonstrated that tomato seed exudates can attract the nematode Meloidogyne incognita using a dual choice assay. Eighteen compounds were then isolated and identified from the exudates. Of these, esters (1-3), fatty acids (4-6) and phenolic acids (10-12) were proven to be the signaling molecules that facilitated the host seeking process of J2s of nematodes, while alkaloids (17 and 18) disrupted J2s in locating their host. Furthermore, some phenolic acids and alkaloids showed antifungal effects against seed-borne fungi. In particular, ferulic acid (12) showed obvious activity against Aspergillus flavus (MIC, 32 μg/mL) while dihydrocapsaicin (17) showed noticeable activity against Fusarium oxysporum (MIC, 16 μg/mL). Overall, this study presents the first evidence that M. incognita can be attracted to or deterred by various compounds in seed exudates through identification of the structures of the compounds in the exudates and analysis of their effects on nematodes. Furthermore, some antifungal compounds were also found. The findings of this work suggest that seed exudates are new source for finding insights into the development of plant protective substances with nematocidal and antifungal effects.

PMID: 32786848 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Source: Industry