Infectious endophthalmitis at a Philippine tertiary hospital: a ten-year retrospective study.
J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect. 2020 Aug 14;10(1):19
Authors: Dimacali VG, Lim Bon Siong R
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis is a sight-threatening disease characterized by marked progressive inflammation of the vitreous and/or aqueous humors. Limited information is currently available regarding endophthalmitis in the Philippines. This study aimed to provide long-term summary data on endophthalmitis cases seen at the largest tertiary referral hospital in the Philippines.
METHODS: All endophthalmitis cases diagnosed at the Philippine General Hospital from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2016 were retrieved and classified by etiology. Data pertaining to history, associated risk factors, isolated microorganisms, management, and final visual outcomes for each patient were reviewed.
RESULTS: A total of 202 cases diagnosed within the audit period were included in the study. These were classified as post-traumatic (55.94%), endogenous (14.36%), acute post-operative (10.40%), keratitis-induced (6.93%), chronic post-operative (5.44%), bleb-associated (3.96%), and suture-associated (2.97%) endophthalmitis. Males comprised 71.29% of the population, while the largest age group affected was 0-10 years (24.75%). The culture-positive rate was 57.89%. The predominant etiology was Gram-positive bacteria (38.18%), followed by Gram-negative bacteria and mixed pathogens (21.82% each), and fungi (18.18%). The most common organisms were Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Aspergillus, and Candida, accounting for 56.45% of isolates. Pars plana vitrectomy was done for 62.87% of patients, intravitreal and other antibiotic therapy in 23.27%, and primary enucleation/evisceration in 10.89%. The final outcomes and best corrected visual acuities were: anophthalmia 11.86%, no light perception/no dazzle 27.84%, light perception 8.76%, hand motions 24.23%, counting fingers 5.15%, 3/200 to 20/50 12.89%, and 20/40 to 20/20 9.28%.
CONCLUSIONS: There was a higher proportion of post-traumatic endophthalmitis cases compared to traditional estimates but consistent with studies from China and Thailand. The majority of these cases involved younger children as well as young to middle-aged males engaged in carpentry and construction work, implying a need for increased public health awareness and strengthening of childcare and workplace safety policies. Our microbiologic profile showed a lower proportion of Gram-positive infections and a higher proportion of mixed pathogen infections compared to other studies. There was also a higher proportion of fungi associated with post-operative and keratitis-induced endophthalmitis. The best outcomes were seen in acute post-operative and bleb-associated endophthalmitis, and the worst outcomes in endogenous and keratitis-induced endophthalmitis. Visual outcomes were poorer compared to other Western and Asian countries, with only 21.7% of patients improving from presentation.
PMID: 32794069 [PubMed]