New knowledge about the biosynthesis of lovastatin and its production by fermentation of Aspergillus terreus.

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New knowledge about the biosynthesis of lovastatin and its production by fermentation of Aspergillus terreus.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020 Sep 15;:

Authors: Barrios-González J, Pérez-Sánchez A, Bibián ME

Abstract
Lovastatin, and its semisynthetic derivative simvastatine, has great medical and economic importance, besides great potential for other uses. In the last years, a deeper and more complex view of secondary metabolism regulation has emerged, with the incorporation of cluster-specific and global transcription factors, and their relation to signaling cascades, as well as the new level of epigenetic regulation. Recently, a new mechanism, which regulates lovastatin biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, has been discovered: reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation; also new unexpected environmental stimuli have been identified, which induce the synthesis of lovastatin, like quorum sensing-type molecules and support stimuli. The present review describes this new panorama and uses this information, together with the knowledge on lovastatin biosynthesis and genomics, as the foundation to analyze literature on optimization of fermentation parameters and medium composition, and also to fully understand new strategies for strain genetic improvement. This new knowledge has been applied to the development of more effective culture media, with the addition of molecules like butyrolactone I, oxylipins, and spermidine, or with addition of ROS-generating molecules to increase internal ROS levels in the cell. It has also been applied to the development of new strategies to generate overproducing strains of Aspergillus terreus, including engineering of the cluster-specific transcription factor (lovE), global transcription factors like the ones implicated in ROS regulation (or even mitochondrial alternative respiration aox gen), or the global regulator LaeA. Moreover, there is potential to apply some of these findings to the development of novel unconventional production systems. KEY POINTS: • New findings in regulation of lovastatin biosynthesis, like ROS regulation. • Induction by unexpected stimuli: autoinducer molecules and support stimuli. • Recent reports on culture medium and process optimization from this stand point. • Applications to molecular genetic strain improvement methods and production systems.

PMID: 32930839 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Source: Industry