Biochemistry of prenylated-FMN enzymes.
Authors: Saaret A, Balaikaite A, Leys D
The reversible (de)carboxylation of unsaturated carboxylic acids is carried out by the UbiX-UbiD system, ubiquitously present in microbes. The biochemical basis of this challenging reaction has recently been uncovered by the discovery of the UbiD cofactor, prenylated FMN (prFMN). This heavily modified flavin is synthesized by the flavin prenyltransferase UbiX, which catalyzes the non-metal dependent prenyl transfer from dimethylallyl(pyro)phosphate (DMAP(P)) to the flavin N5 and C6 positions, creating a fourth non-aromatic ring. Following prenylation, prFMN undergoes oxidative maturation to form the iminium species required for UbiD activity. prFMNiminium acts as a prostethic group and is bound via metal ion mediated interactions between UbiD and the prFMNiminium phosphate moiety. The modified isoalloxazine ring is place adjacent to the E(D)-R-E UbiD signature sequent motif. The fungal ferulic acid decarboxylase Fdc from Aspergillus niger has emerged as a UbiD-model system, and has yielded atomic level insight into the prFMNiminium mediated (de)carboxylation. A wealth of data now supports a mechanism reliant on reversible 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition between substrate and cofactor for this enzyme. This poses the intriguing question whether a similar mechanism is used by all UbiD enzymes, especially those that act as carboxylases on inherently more difficult substrates such as phenylphosphate or benzene/naphthalene. Indeed, considerable variability in terms of oligomerization, domain motion and active site structure is now reported for the UbiD family.
PMID: 32951834 [PubMed – in process]