Composition, source, and influencing factors of white spots formation in soybean paste.
J Food Sci. 2020 Sep 20;:
Authors: Min S, Niu C, Shan W, Sun W, Liu C, Zheng F, Wang J, Li Q
White spots are commonly found in bean-based fermented food, which will significantly lower the product quality. This study aimed to analyze the composition of white spots and further reveal the source and influencing factors of white spots in bean-based fermented food using soybean paste as study model. The results showed that white spots were mainly composed of 40.96% free tyrosine and 37.94% tyrosine in combination form. During soybean paste fermentation, tyrosine was found to be produced by the actions of proteolytic enzymes secreted by Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 instead of the microbial metabolism and the excessive accumulation of tyrosine in soybean paste led to the formation of white spots. Among all influencing factors, high temperature treatment favored the formation of white spots. The existence of soy peptone and phenylalanine would postpone the precipitation of tyrosine while promoting the aggregation of the tyrosine precipitation. Field emission scanning electron microscope analysis showed that tyrosine would accumulate around the soybean protein particles and treatment at 120 °C would disrupt the structure of tyrosine-protein complex. Based on the above results, we proposed that treatment of soybean paste at temperature lower than 80 °C was the current practically applicable method to control the formation of white spots in soybean paste. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study developed a new idea to understand the composition and formation of white spots in soybean paste, which would provide guidance for prevention and control of white spots during the production of soybean paste for manufacturers and researchers.
PMID: 32954501 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]