Immunostimulatory Action of High-Content Active Arabinoxylan in Rice Bran.
ACS Omega. 2020 Oct 20;5(41):26374-26381
Authors: Ji MG, Lee YR, Nam YH, Castañeda R, Hong BN, Kang TH
Immunostimulatory activity comprises specific and nonspecific immune responses stimulated by internal and external factors. Arabinoxylan is well known for its immunostimulatory activity in vivo and in vitro, although the biological activities of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides depend on their structural features. In this study, we aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the immunostimulatory activity of high-content active arabinoxylan (HCAA) obtained from rice bran through bioconversion by microorganisms and acid hydrolysis. Three microorganisms, Penicillium rocheforti, Aspergillus oryzae, and Pleurotus osteatus, and three different acid concentrations of hydrochloric acid (5, 10, and 20%) and acetic acid (25, 50, and 75%) were used for producing HCAA. HPLC analysis of arabinose and xylose content revealed that fermentation with P. rocheforti followed by hydrolysis with 5% hydrochloric acid was the most efficient to produce HCAA. GPC analysis of HCAA indicates that HCAA is a complex of various forms of saccharides and shows an average molecular weight of 625. Further, in vitro evaluation disclosed that exposure to HCAA (10-200 μg/mL) increased cell viability in mice splenic cells and RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, exposure of mice to oral administration of HCAA (100 mg/kg) for 4-7 days increased lymphokine-activated killer (LAK)- and macrophage-mediated cytotoxic activity in cancer cells (YAC-1). Furthermore, in vitro exposure to HCAA and oral administrations in mice revealed increased interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) protein expression through western blot analysis in RAW 264.7 cells and isolated splenic cells. Our results suggest that HCAA developed by bioconversion and acid hydrolysis may enhance immune responses in vivo and in vitro.
PMID: 33110965 [PubMed]