Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using coil therapy: complications and management.
Adv Respir Med. 2020;88(5):433-442
Authors: Gulsen A
Nonsurgical approaches involving bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) have been developed in the last decade. One of these, the BLVR coil procedure, is a treatment option for patients with homogeneous and heterogeneous end-stage emphysema and a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of 15-45%. This treatment decreases hyperinflation and improves lung function, the quality of life, and exercise capacity. It is very important to prepare patients for treatment, premedications, anesthesia applications, intubation, post-procedure follow-up and treatments. Further, it has been observed that various complications can develop during and after the procedure. Generally, the observed and reported complications are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation, chest pain, mild bleeding, pneumonia, pneumothorax, and respiratory failure. Rarely, aspergillus cavitation (coil-related aspergilloma), bronchopleural fistula and penetration into the pleural space, bronchiectasis, coil-associated inflammatory response and opacities, and hiccups are observed. Common complications are usually mild or moderate, while the rare ones can be life-threatening (except hiccup), so early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. However, patients treated with BLVR have lower mortality rates than untreated patients with similar morbidity. Based on the findings of this review, we can estimate that premedication one day before and just before the procedure may reduce potential complications. Some medical centers apply and recommend 30-day macrolide treatment after the procedure. New generation supraglottic devices may be preferred to avoid complications due to endotracheal intubation. Moreover, further research is needed to identify risk factors, prevent potential complications, and a common consensus is required for routine preventive treatment.
PMID: 33169816 [PubMed – in process]