Nebulised surface-active hybrid nanoparticles of voriconazole for pulmonary Aspergillosis demonstrate clathrin-mediated cellular uptake, improved antifungal efficacy and lung retention.

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Nebulised surface-active hybrid nanoparticles of voriconazole for pulmonary Aspergillosis demonstrate clathrin-mediated cellular uptake, improved antifungal efficacy and lung retention.

J Nanobiotechnology. 2021 Jan 11;19(1):19

Authors: Kaur R, Dennison SR, Burrow AJ, Rudramurthy SM, Swami R, Gorki V, Katare OP, Kaushik A, Singh B, Singh KK

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis is rising worldwide, owing to an increased population of immunocompromised patients. Notable potential of the pulmonary route has been witnessed in antifungal delivery due to distinct advantages of direct lung targeting and first-pass evasion. The current research reports biomimetic surface-active lipid-polymer hybrid (LPH) nanoparticles (NPs) of voriconazole, employing lung-specific lipid, i.e., dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and natural biodegradable polymer, i.e., chitosan, to augment its pulmonary deposition and retention, following nebulization.
RESULTS: The developed nanosystem exhibited a particle size in the range of 228-255 nm and drug entrapment of 45-54.8%. Nebulized microdroplet characterization of NPs dispersion revealed a mean diameter of  ≤ 5 μm, corroborating its deep lung deposition potential as determined by next-generation impactor studies. Biophysical interaction of LPH NPs with lipid-monolayers indicated their surface-active potential and ease of intercalation into the pulmonary surfactant membrane at the air-lung interface. Cellular viability and uptake studies demonstrated their cytocompatibility and time-and concentration-dependent uptake in lung-epithelial A549 and Calu-3 cells with clathrin-mediated internalization. Transepithelial electrical resistance experiments established their ability to penetrate tight airway Calu-3 monolayers. Antifungal studies on laboratory strains and clinical isolates depicted their superior efficacy against Aspergillus species. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed nearly 5-, 4- and threefolds enhancement in lung AUC, Tmax, and MRT values, construing significant drug access and retention in lungs.
CONCLUSIONS: Nebulized LPH NPs were observed as a promising solution to provide effective and safe therapy for the management of pulmonary aspergillosis infection with improved patient compliance and avoidance of systemic side-effects.

PMID: 33430888 [PubMed – in process]

Source: Industry