Nebulized Amphotericin B Dosing Regimen for Aspergillus Prevention After Lung Transplant.

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Nebulized Amphotericin B Dosing Regimen for Aspergillus Prevention After Lung Transplant.

Exp Clin Transplant. 2021 Jan;19(1):58-63

Authors: Alissa D, AlMaghrabi R, Nizami I, Saleh A, Al Shamrani A, Alangari N, Al Begami N, Al Muraybidh R, Bin Huwaimel S, Korayem GB

OBJECTIVES: Lung transplant guidelines recommend nebulized amphotericin B with or without systemic antifungal agents for fungal prophylaxis. However, amphotericin formulation, dosing, and frequency vary between studies. We assessed the safety and effectiveness of nebulized amphotericin B to prevent Aspergillus infection in 2 regimens, ie, twice daily compared with 3 times daily.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study. We included patients at least 14 years old who underwent lung transplant and received nebulized amphotericin B alone or in combination with another antifungal agent either twice daily or 3 times daily. The primary endpoint was the incidence of lung Aspergillus infection, and the secondary endpoints were nebulized amphotericin B side effects and breakthrough Aspergillus infection.
RESULTS: A total of 84 patients were included. The group given nebulized amphotericin twice daily had a higher rate of Aspergillus infection at 17% compared with 4% in the group treated 3 times daily (P = .24). No serious side effects were reported, but coughing and diarrhea were more common in patients who received amphotericin B 3 times daily.
CONCLUSIONS: A systemic antifungal agent combined with nebulized amphotericin either twice or 3 times daily has been effective to prevent Aspergillus infection. Nebulized amphotericin twice daily may be a more viable option to increase a patient’s adherence and decrease medication cost and side effects. However, a larger randomized controlled trial is needed to determine the best dosing regimen for nebulized amphotericin B as a fungal prophylaxis after lung transplant.

PMID: 33441058 [PubMed – in process]

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