Aspergillus isolation in nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: Associated with antimycobacterial treatment initiation but not response.

Related Articles

Aspergillus isolation in nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease: Associated with antimycobacterial treatment initiation but not response.

Respir Med. 2021 Feb 12;179:106338

Authors: Raats D, Aldhaheri SMS, Marras TK, Mehrabi M, Brode SK

Abstract
PURPOSE: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is a serious complication of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD), and diagnosis remains challenging. The present study examined associations between the respiratory isolation of Aspergillus and the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with NTM-PD.
METHODS: All patients meeting NTM-PD criteria as defined by the ATS/IDSA statement, with at least one respiratory sample cultured for fungi, were included in this retrospective cohort analysis. Patients with at least one respiratory sample isolating Aspergillus were compared to patients who did not isolate Aspergillus. The primary outcomes were culture conversion and radiologic evolution 12 months after NTM-PD treatment initiation.
RESULTS: During a 12 year period, 497 patients meeting the inclusion criteria were seen in our tertiary care center, of whom 130 grew Aspergillus. Median follow up after NTM-PD diagnosis was 46 months. Inhaled corticosteroid use, a nodular-bronchiectatic CT pattern and NTM-PD treatment initiation were more frequent in patients who isolated Aspergillus compared to those who did not (p-value respectively 0.01, 0.03 and < 0.001). Rates of culture conversion (63.0% vs. 62.2%, respectively; p-value 1) and radiologic evolution (improvement or stability in 69.7% vs. 77.2%, respectively; p-value 0.25) were not significantly different between treatment groups. Likewise, culture reversion rate and 5-year mortality were not significantly different. Additionally, A. fumigatus and repeated detection of Aspergillus were not associated with treatment outcomes.
CONCLUSION: There was no association between respiratory isolation of Aspergillus and NTM-PD treatment outcomes in this cohort. However, treatment for NTM-PD was initiated more frequently in patients who isolated Aspergillus.

PMID: 33611086 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Source: Industry