Biodegradation pathway of the organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos, methyl parathion and profenofos by the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sydowii CBMAI 935 and its potential for methylation reactions of phenolic compounds
Mar Pollut Bull. 2021 Feb 25;166:112185. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112185. Online ahead of print.
The indiscriminate use of organophosphate pesticides causes serious environmental and human health problems. This study aims the biodegradation of chlorpyrifos, methyl parathion and profenofos with the proposal of new biodegradation pathways employing marine-derived fungi as biocatalysts. Firstly, a growth screening was carried out with seven fungi strains and Aspergillus sydowii CBMAI 935 was selected. For chlorpyrifos, 32% biodegradation was observed and the metabolites tetraethyl dithiodiphosphate, 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol, 2,3,5-trichloro-6-methoxypyridine, and 3,5,6-trichloro-1-methylpyridin-2(1H)-one were identified. Whereas 80% methyl parathion was biodegraded with the identification of isoparathion, methyl paraoxon, trimethyl phosphate, O,O,O-trimethyl phosphorothioate, O,O,S-trimethyl phosphorothioate, 1-methoxy-4-nitrobenzene, and 4-nitrophenol. For profenofos, 52% biodegradation was determined and the identified metabolites were 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol, 4-bromo-2-chloro-1-methoxybenzene and O,O-diethyl S-propylphosphorothioate. Moreover, A. sydowii CBMAI 935 methylated different phenolic substrates (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 6-chloropyridin-3-ol, and pentachlorophenol). Therefore, the knowledge about the fate of these compounds in the sea was expanded, and the marine-derived fungus A. sydowii CBMAI 935 showed potential for biotransformation reactions.