<em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>, bentonite, and kaolin as adsorbents for reducing the adverse impacts of mycotoxin contaminated feed on broiler histopathology and hemato-biochemical changes
Vet World. 2021 Jan;14(1):23-32. doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2021.23-32. Epub 2021 Jan 5.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bentonite and kaolin were used to reduce the adverse effects of mold-contaminated diet on broilers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of S. cerevisiae, bentonite, and kaolin in reducing the adverse effects of mold (fungal) contaminated diet on broilers. Specifically, we investigated the histopathological, hematological, and serum biochemical changes associated with broilers fed mold-contaminated diets supplemented with these three adsorbents. We also isolated and identified the common fungal contaminants in the poultry feeds as well as the mycotoxins they produced.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hundred broilers (3-weeks-old) were randomly grouped into five dietary treatments, basal feed (negative control), feed contaminated with mold, mold-contaminated feed+S. cerevisiae, mold-contaminated feed+bentonite, and mold-contaminated feed+kaolin. The fungal contaminants in the feeds were isolated and molecularly identified while the mycotoxins in the feed where analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood samples of birds from each group were analyzed for hematology and serum biochemistry. The liver, spleen, kidney, and bursa of Fabricius of the birds were excised and analyzed for histopathological changes.
RESULTS: The most common fungal contaminants in the feeds were Penicillium (33.3%) species, followed by Aspergillus species (22.2%). The mold-contaminated feed had the highest number of fungal contaminants, 55.6%, while the negative control (basal feed group) had none. Total aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol were high in the mold-contaminated feed (53.272 μg/kg and 634.5 μg kg, respectively), but these were reduced by the addition of adsorbents to the feed. The birds fed mold-contaminated feed had significantly (p<0.05) reduced red blood cell count counts, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin but increased white blood cell count compared to the negative control. Liver enzyme activity (alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and cholesterol concentration increased significantly (p<0.05) in the group fed mold-contaminated feed while the serum albumin and total protein decreased significantly (p<0.05) in comparison with the negative control. Adverse histopathological changes were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius in the group fed mold-contaminated feed. Addition of S. cerevisiae, bentonite or kaolin in the mold-contaminated feed ameliorated these toxic effects.
CONCLUSION: The observed histopathological lesions were consistent with mycotoxicosis in birds and were mild in the adsorbent treated groups. Kaolin had a higher protective effect against mycotoxicosis than the two other adsorbents.