Bacterial and fungal communities and their predictive functional profiles in kinema, a naturally fermented soybean food of India, Nepal and Bhutan
Food Res Int. 2021 Feb;140:110055. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2020.110055. Epub 2020 Dec 24.
Bacterial and fungal communities in kinema, a naturally fermented soybean food of the Eastern Himalayan regions of India, Nepal and Bhutan were profiled by high-throughout sequence analysis. Firmicutes (78.4%) was the most abundant phylum in kinema, followed by Proteobacteria (14.76%) and other phyla. Twenty seven species of Bacillus were detected, among which Bacillus subtilis (28.70%) was the most abundant bacterium, followed by B. licheniformis, B. thermoamylovorans, B. cereus, Ignatzschineria larvae, Corynebacterium casei, B. sonorensis, Proteus vulgaris, Brevibacillus borstelensis, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Lactobacillus fermentum and Ignatzschineria indica. Ascomycota was the most abundant fungal phylum in kinema. Wallemia canadensis, Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Exobasidium spp., Arthrocladium spp., Aspergillus penicillioides, Mortierella spp., Rhizopus arrhizus and Mucor circinelloides, were major moulds, and Pichia sporocuriosa, Trichosporon spp., Saccharomycopsis malanga and Rhodotorula cycloclastica were abundant yeasts in kinema. We detected 277 species of bacteria among which, 99.09% were culturable and 0.91% were unculturable; and 80 fungal species among which, 33.72% were culturable and 66.28% were unculturable. Several unique bacterial genera to each country were observed, whereas no unique fungal genus was observed in kinema. Maximum coverage of sequencing depth was observed in all samples. Based on PCA plot, close relation was observed between samples of India and Nepal, whereas samples of Bhutan was clearly distinctive. Predictive functional features of bacterial and fungi related to metabolisms were inferred by the KEGG Orthology and MetaCyc databases, respectively.