J Environ Sci Health B. 2021 Mar 3:1-15. doi: 10.1080/03601234.2021.1892434. Online ahead of print.
Contamination of goat milk with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a public health concern. This study investigated filamentous fungi in goat feed and quantified AFM1 in milk samples (n = 108) from goat fed forage and concentrate. Based on the detected AFM1 concentration, risk assessment analyses were performed concerning the Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) for one-year-old children and adults. Filamentous fungi were found in goat feed samples in a range of 3.1 ± 1.9 to 4.2 ± 0.2 log CFU/g. Five genera were identified, to cite Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Acremonium. Aspergillus species comprised A. flavus, A. niger, and A. ochraceus. All goat milk samples were contaminated with AFM1 (5.60-48.20 ng/L; mean 21.90 ± 10.28 ng/L) in amounts below the limits imposed by regulatory agencies. However, EDI values for AFM1 through goat milk estimated for one-year-old children were above the Tolerable Daily Intake. The calculated Hazard Index for one-year-old children indicated potential risk of liver cancer due to goat milk consumption. The Margin of Exposure values to AFM1 in one-year-old children and adults consuming goat milk as the unique milk source indicated increased health risk. Therefore, contamination of goat milk with AFM1 should be considered a high priority for Brazil’s risk management actions.