Molecular and HPLC-based approaches for detection of aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin A released from toxigenic Aspergillus species in processed meat
BMC Microbiol. 2021 Mar 14;21(1):82. doi: 10.1186/s12866-021-02144-y.
BACKGROUND: Meat-products are considered an enriched media for mycotoxins. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of toxigenic Aspergillus species in processed meat samples, HPLC-quantitative measurement of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A residues, and molecular sequencing of aflR1 and pks genes. One hundred and twenty processed beef meat specimens (basterma, sausage, and minced meat; n = 40 for each) were collected from Ismailia Province, Egypt. Samples were prepared for total mold count, isolation, and identification of Aspergillus species. All samples were analyzed for the production of both Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A mycotoxins by HPLC. Molecular identification of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus was performed using PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region; furthermore, the aflR1 and pks genes were sequenced.
RESULTS: The total mold count obtained from sausage samples was the highest one, followed by minced meat samples. The prevalence of A. flavus was (15%), (7.5%), and (10%), while the prevalence of A. ochraceus was (2.5%), (10%), and (0%) in the examined basterma, sausage, and minced meat samples, respectively. Using PCR, the ITS region was successfully amplified in all the tested A. flavus and A. ochraceus strains. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in six basterma samples (15%). Moreover, the ochratoxin A was detected only in four sausage samples (10%). The aflR1 and pks genes were amplified and sequenced successfully and deposited in the GenBank with accession numbers MF694264 and MF694264, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the HPLC-Molecular-based approaches for the detection of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in processed beef meat in Egypt. The production of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in processed meat constitutes a public health threat. Aflatoxin B1 is commonly associated with basterma samples. Moreover, ochratoxin A was detected frequently in sausage samples. The routine inspection of mycotoxins in processed meat products is essential to protect human consumers.