Evaluation of surface active and antimicrobial properties of alkyl D-lyxosides and alkyl L-rhamnosides as green surfactants
Chemosphere. 2021 May;271:129818. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129818. Epub 2021 Feb 2.
The use of carbohydrates, as a part of surface-active compounds, has been studied due to their biodegradability and nontoxic profile. A series of alkyl glycosides containing d-lyxose and l-rhamnose with alkyl chains of 8-12 carbon atoms were investigated. The effects of structural variations on their physico-chemical and biological properties have been evaluated for a detailed understanding of their properties. Alkyl glycosides were tested on their toxicity against bacterial cells of the genus Pseudomonas (MTT assay), microbiological adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH assay), cell surface hydrophobicity (Congo red assay), cell membrane permeability (crystal violet assay), and bacterial biofilm formation. Furthermore, their antifungal activity against two pathogenic microorganisms Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was investigated using the disc diffusion method. Toxicological studies revealed that compounds could reduce the metabolic activity of bacterial cells only moderately but they increased the hydrophobicity of cell surface in Pseudomonas strains. In addition, alkyl glycosides changed the permeability of the cell membranes to the level of 30-40% for this strain. The compounds with an even number of carbon atoms in their alkyl chain promoted stronger bacterial biofilm formation on the glass surface. All studied derivatives demonstrated very strong antifungal activity against fungus A. niger but very small effect against C. albicans. Overall, the results showed that long-chain alkyl glycosides could be considered as inexpensive, biocompatible, nontoxic agents, and serve for the surface design to avoid bacterial adhesion as an alternative solution to antibiotic treatment.