A postbiotic from Aspergillus oryzae attenuates the impact of heat stress in ectothermic and endothermic organisms
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 19;11(1):6407. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-85707-3.
Heat stress is detrimental to food-producing animals and animal productivity remains suboptimal despite the use of heat abatement strategies during summer. Global warming and the increase of frequency and intensity of heatwaves are likely to continue and, thus, exacerbate the problem of heat stress. Heat stress leads to the impairment of physiological and cellular functions of ectothermic and endothermic animals. Therefore, it is critical to conceive ways of protecting animals against the pathological effects of heat stress. In experiments with endothermic animals highly sensitive to heat (Bos taurus), we have previously reported that heat-induced systemic inflammation can be ameliorated in part by nutritional interventions. The experiments conducted in this report described molecular and physiological adaptations to heat stress using Drosophila melanogaster and dairy cow models. In this report, we expand previous work by first demonstrating that the addition of a postbiotic from Aspergillus oryzae (AO) into the culture medium of ectothermic animals (Drosophila melanogaster) improved survival to heat stress from 30 to 58%. This response was associated with downregulation of genes involved in the modulation of oxidative stress and immunity, most notably metallothionein B, C, and D. In line with these results, we subsequently showed that the supplementation with the AO postbiotic to lactating dairy cows experiencing heat stress decreased plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and the expression of interleukin-6 in white blood cells. These alterations were paralleled by increased synthesis of energy-corrected milk and milk components, suggesting enhanced nutrient partitioning to lactogenesis and increased metabolic efficiency. In summary, this work provides evidence that a postbiotic from AO enhances thermal tolerance likely through a mechanism that entails reduced inflammation.