Ecotoxicology. 2021 Mar 23. doi: 10.1007/s10646-021-02389-3. Online ahead of print.
A natural compound with the algicidal effect was isolated from the culture medium of Aspergillus sp. SCSIOW2 and was identified as malformin C, which was based on the data of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and ESI-MS. Malformin C exhibited dose-dependent algicidal activities against two strains of noxious red tide algae, Akashiwo sanguinea and Chattonella marina. The activity against A. sanguinea was stronger than that against C. marina (the algicidal activity of 58 and 36% at 50 μM treatment for 2 h, respectively). Morphology changes including perforation, plasmolysis, and fragmentation of algal cells were observed. Malformin C induced a significant increase in ROS level, caused the damage of SOD activity, and led to the massive generation of MDA contents in algae cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the cyclic peptide described as an algicidal compound against HABs.