Investigation of feedstuff contaminated with aflatoxigenic fungi species in the semi-arid region in northeast of Iran
Environ Monit Assess. 2021 Mar 24;193(4):214. doi: 10.1007/s10661-021-08990-7.
There is a close relationship between human health and the quality of the ration used by domestic animals. Also, molds, like genus of Aspergillus, infect animal and human food products with dangerous toxic substances, i.e., aflatoxins that are causing primary and secondary mycotoxicosis in animals and human. The aim of this study was to compare fungal species that contaminated and produced aflatoxin in livestock and poultry feed in Gonabad that is a semi-arid city in northeast of Iran. Sampling was randomly performed three times from two livestock feed mills and two poultry feed mills during summer and autumn. Samples were cultured in two forms of solid and suspension in Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol medium (SC) for 5 days in 28 °C. Microscopic diagnostic test and also molecular diagnostic test were used to determine fungal species in culture based on β-tubulin gene sequencing. A total of 27.25% and 31.7% of two livestock feed and two poultry feed samples were contaminated with Aspergillus, respectively. Aspergillus flavus (n = 4), Aspergillus Fumigatus (n = 2), Aspergillus versicolor (n = 2), Aspergillus niger (n = 2), Aspergillus parasiticus (n = 1), Aspergillus ochraceus (n = 1), and Aspergillus terreus (n = 1) were detected by molecular PCR test. The rate of contamination to genus of Aspergillus in autumn was higher than summer (P value = 0.008). Poultry feed sample showed more contamination to Aspergillus species compared with livestock feed.