Beneficial microbiomes for bioremediation of diverse contaminated environments for environmental sustainability: present status and future challenges
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Mar 25. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-13252-7. Online ahead of print.
Over the past few decades, the rapid development of agriculture and industries has resulted in contamination of the environment by diverse pollutants, including heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, plastics, and various agrochemicals. Their presence in the environment is of great concern due to their toxicity and non-biodegradable nature. Their interaction with each other and coexistence in the environment greatly influence and threaten the ecological environment and human health. Furthermore, the presence of these pollutants affects the soil quality and fertility. Physicochemical techniques are used to remediate such environments, but they are less effective and demand high costs of operation. Bioremediation is an efficient, widespread, cost-effective, and eco-friendly cleanup tool. The use of microorganisms has received significant attention as an efficient biotechnological strategy to decontaminate the environment. Bioremediation through microorganisms appears to be an economically viable and efficient approach because it poses the lowest risk to the environment. This technique utilizes the metabolic potential of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments. Many microbial genera have been known to be involved in bioremediation, including Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Aspergillus, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Talaromyces, and Trichoderma. Archaea, including Natrialba and Haloferax, from extreme environments have also been reported as potent bioresources for biological remediation. Thus, utilizing microbes for managing environmental pollution is promising technology, and, in fact, the microbes provide a useful podium that can be used for an enhanced bioremediation model of diverse environmental pollutants.