Triggering the biosynthetic machinery of Taxol by Aspergillus flavipes via cocultivation with Bacillus subtilis: proteomic analyses emphasize the chromatin remodeling upon fungal-bacterial interaction
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Mar 25. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-13533-1. Online ahead of print.
Attenuating the Taxol biosynthesis by fungi with storage and subculturing is the major challenge that limits their further industrial applications. Aspergillus flavipes has been reported as a potent Taxol producer, with plausible increasing to its Taxol yield upon coculturing with the microbiome of Podocarpus gracilior (El-Sayed et al., Process Biochemistry 76:55-67, 2019a; Scientific Reports 9, 2019b; Enzyme and Microbial Technology 131, 2019c); however, the identity of these microbial inducers remains ambiguous. Thus, this study was to assess the potency of individual microbes to trigger the Taxol biosynthesis by A. flavipes and to unravel the differentially expressed protein in response to bacterial interaction. Among the 25 bacterial endophytes of P. gracilior, Bacillus subtilis was the potent isolate enhancing the Taxol yield of A. flavipes by ~1.6-fold. Strikingly, this bacterial elicitor displayed a reliable inhibition to the growth of A. flavipes, so the released antifungal compound by B. subtilis could be the same signals for triggering the expression of A. flavipes Taxol synthesis. The highest Taxol yield by A. flavipes was obtained with the viable cells of B. subtilis, ensuring the pivotality of physical intimate bacterial-fungal interaction. Differential proteome of the cocultures A. flavipes and B. subtilis as well as the axenic A. flavipes was conducted by LC-MS/MS. From the total of 106 identified proteins, 50 proteins were significantly expressed, 47 were upregulated ones, and 59 were downregulated ones for the cocultures normalizing to the axenic one. From the Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG enrichment analyses, the cellular process, primary metabolic process, and nitrogen compound metabolic process were significantly changed in the coculture normalizing to monoculture of A. flavipes. The molecular function terms (histones H2B, H2A, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK)) were the highly significantly expressed proteins of A. flavipes in response to B. subtilis, with strong correlation to triggering of Taxol biosynthesis. The intimate interaction of A. flavipes with B. subtilis strongly modulates the Taxol biosynthetic machinery of A. flavipes by modulating the chromatin remodeling.