Untangling the multi-regime molecular mechanism of verbenol-chemotype Zingiber officinale essential oil against Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B(1)
Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6832. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-86253-8.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the natural polyketide produced by Aspergillus flavus, has a potent carcinogenic effect on humans as well as animals. In the present study, the antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic B1 activity of chemically characterized Zingiber officinale essential oil (ZOEO) was investigated via in vitro analysis aided with molecular dynamics (MD) approaches. The GC-MS results revealed verbenol (52.41%) as the major component of oil. The antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic activity of ZOEO was found to be 0.6 µl/ml and 0.5 µl/ml respectively. In-vitro analysis targeting the cell membrane, mitochondria and carbohydrate catabolism elucidated the probable antifungal mode of action. Further, docking and MD simulation results confirmed the inhibitory action of verbenol on the structural gene products (Nor-1, Omt-1, and Vbs) of aflatoxin biosynthetic machinery. Biochemical assays revealed the fungitoxic potential of the ZOEO while, computational results infers the stabilizing effects on the gene products upon verbenol binding leads to the impairment in its functionality. This is the first attempt to assess the multi-regime anti-AFB1 mechanism of verbenol chemotype-ZOEO targeting the Nor-1, Omt-1, and Vbs via computational approaches.