Prevalence of pulmonary mycoses in smear-negative patients with suspected tuberculosis in the Brazilian Amazon
Rev Iberoam Micol. 2021 Mar 25:S1130-1406(21)00007-3. doi: 10.1016/j.riam.2020.12.004. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary mycoses resemble clinically and radiologically chronic pulmonary tuberculosis. Studies describing the prevalence, etiology and clinical features of pulmonary mycosis are of crucial importance in the Brazilian Amazon.
AIMS: To estimate the frequency of pulmonary mycoses in smear-negative tuberculosis patients; to describe their demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics; and to evaluate diagnostic methods.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two tuberculosis reference institutions in Amazonas, Brazil. We included 213 patients and collected clinical data, blood and induced sputum to perform serological, direct microscopy, microbiologic culture and PCR-based assays to identify infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Cryptococcus, and HIV. Chest computed tomography was also performed.
RESULTS: Pulmonary mycoses were diagnosed in 7% (15/213) of the cases, comprising ten aspergillosis cases, three cases of paracoccidioidomycosis and one case each of histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis. Among the patients with pulmonary mycoses, 86.7% were former tuberculosis patients. The most significant clinical characteristics associated with pulmonary mycoses were cavity-shaped lung injuries, prolonged chronic cough and hemoptysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed the high prevalence of pulmonary mycoses in smear-negative tuberculosis patients in the Brazilian Amazon.