Biochemical Properties of Tyrosinase from Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium copticola; Undecanoic Acid from Aspergillus flavus, an Endophyte of Moringa oleifera, Is a Novel Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitor
Molecules. 2021 Mar 1;26(5):1309. doi: 10.3390/molecules26051309.
Tyrosinase is a copper-containing monooxygenase catalyzing the O-hydroxylation of tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine then to dopaquinone that is profoundly involved in melanin synthesis in eukaryotes. Overactivation of tyrosinase is correlated with hyperpigmentation that is metabolically correlated with severe pathological disorders, so, inhibition of this enzyme is the most effective approach in controlling the overproduction of melanin and its hazardous effects. Thus, searching for a powerful, selective inhibitor of human tyrosinase to limit the hyper-synthesis of melanin is a challenge. Unlike the difficulty of overexpression of human tyrosinase, using fungal tyrosinase as a model enzyme to the human one to evaluate the mechanistics of enzyme inhibition in response to various compounds is the most feasible strategy. Thus, the purification of highly catalytic-efficient fungal tyrosinase, exploring a novel inhibitor, and evaluating the mechanistics of enzyme inhibition are the main objectives of this work. Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium copticola were reported as the most potential tyrosinase producers. The biochemical properties suggest that this enzyme displays a higher structural and catalytic proximity to human tyrosinase. Upon nutritional bioprocessing by Plackett-Burman design, the yield of tyrosinase was increased by about 7.5-folds, compared to the control. The purified tyrosinase was strongly inhibited by kojic acid and A. flavus DCM extracts with IC50 values of 15.1 and 12.6 µg/mL, respectively. From the spectroscopic analysis, the main anti-tyrosinase compounds of A. flavus extract was resolved, and verified as undecanoic acid. Further studies are ongoing to unravel the in vivo effect and cytotoxicity of this compound in fungi and human, that could be a novel drug to various diseases associated with hyperpigmentation by melanin.