Medical Application of Substances Derived from Non-Pathogenic Fungi Aspergillus oryzae and A. luchuensis-Containing Koji
J Fungi (Basel). 2021 Mar 24;7(4):243. doi: 10.3390/jof7040243.
Although most fungi cause pathogenicity toward human beings, dynasties of the East Asian region have domesticated and utilized specific fungi for medical applications. The Japanese dynasty and nation have domesticated and utilized koji fermented with non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae for more than 1300 years. Recent research has elucidated that koji contains medicinal substances such as Taka-diastase, acid protease, koji glycosylceramide, kojic acid, oligosaccharides, ethyl-α-d-glucoside, ferulic acid, ergothioneine, pyroglutamyl leucine, pyranonigrin A, resistant proteins, deferriferrichrysin, polyamines, Bifidobacterium-stimulating peptides, angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor peptides, 14-dehydroergosterol, beta-glucan, biotin, and citric acid. This review introduces potential medical applications of such medicinal substances to hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and cognitive diseases, chronic inflammation, epidermal permeability barrier disruption, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and anti-cancer therapy.