Biochar as a biocompatible mild anti-inflammatory supplement for animal feed and agricultural fields
Chem Biodivers. 2021 Apr 9. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.202001002. Online ahead of print.
Biochar is an organic material and high in carbon content, besides its use for energy purposes, it is also a material that serves the purpose of improving soil fertility, organic matter content of soils and removing heavy metals from water and soil. This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial effects of biochar whose beneficial effects on agricultural productivity has been proven by different studies. Scientific literature concerning the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects of the apricot seed and olive seed biochar is limited. Biochar applications may help to alter the microbial diversity by modifying biological environment either in agriculture or in animal husbandry. Moreover, biochar has been used in animal husbandry to improve animal health especially by regulating the intestinal flora and inflammation in the intestines. Hence, in our study, we investigated the effect of biochar on the growth of Aspergillus niger, Cryphonectria parasitica, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Plenodomus tracheiphilus, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and two different bacteriophage strains. Biochar did not have a direct effect on the growth of neither Gram positive nor Gram negative bacteria, bacteriophages and fungi. In order to test their direct effects on the immune cells, mammalian macrophages were used and biochar directly reduced the inflammatory cytokine levels produced by the in vitro activated macrophages.