Stability comparison of four lipases and catalytic mechanism during the synthesis of 1,3-di-oleic-2-medium chain triacylglycerols in a trace water-in-oil system: Experimental analyses and computational simulations
J Food Biochem. 2021 Apr 9:e13667. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.13667. Online ahead of print.
In the present study, a kind of structured lipids, namely 1,3-di-oleic-2-medium chain (OMO) triacylglycerols, were synthesized through lipase-catalyzed reactions using coconut oil and rapeseed acid as materials in a trace water-in-oil system. Experimental analysis and computational simulations were undertaken to compare the stability of four lipases including Lipozyme RMIM, Lipozyme TLIM, Novozym 435, and Aspergillus oryzae immobilized lipase (AOIM), and illustrate catalytic mechanism of Novozym 435 during the synthesis of OMO. Fourier transform infrared and molecular dynamics simulation results demonstrated that a decrease in ordered structure (α-helix and β-sheet) led to a reduction in enzyme activity. Compared with Lipozyme RMIM and Novozym 435, Lipozyme TLIM and AOIM exhibited better stability due to a short-chain lid in TLIM, which covers activity sites, and hydrogen bonds formed between activity center of AOIM and water. Among four lipases, AOIM exhibited best catalytic performance: a OMO yield of 30.7% at 3 hr and a good stability of long term (48 hr). Density functional theory results demonstrated that specifically, during the synthesis of OMO triacylglycerol, the addition of Novozym 435 (derived from Candida antarctica lipase B, CALB) substantially lowered reaction barriers (64.4 KJ/mol with CALB vs. 332.7 KJ/mol with no lipase), aiding in the generation of OMO because of the formations of transitional tetrahedral intermediates. A trace water-in-oil system was a green and efficient alternative for lipase-catalyzed production of OMO, and this study provided crucial insights into the stability/instability and catalytic mechanisms of lipase in the synthesis of structured lipids. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: We compared the stability of Lipozyme RMIM, Lipozyme 435, Lipozyme TLIM, and AOIM during the synthesis of the OMO triacylglycerols in a trace water-in-oil system, where exhibited a high catalytic activity of lipase in water-oil interface. AOIM had the highest stability and showed the best catalytic performance due to the formation of hydrogen bonds. Besides, for the first time, the transition tetrahedral structure was revealed in the enzymatic synthesis of medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols. This study provides a rational approach to compare lipase stability and a possible hint to choose appropriate enzyme in a specific catalytic condition.