Mycoremediation of oxytetracycline by marine fungi mycelium isolated from salmon farming areas in the south of Chile
Food Chem Toxicol. 2021 Apr 12:112198. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2021.112198. Online ahead of print.
Antibiotics are extensively used for growth promotion purposes in intensive aquaculture. In Chile, the use of antibiotics in salmon farming is excessive, approximately 62 times more than is used in Norway. In the salmon industry, antibiotics such as oxytetracycline (OTC) are administered in the diet, both in the juvenile stage in freshwater and in the fattening process of salmon in marine sectors. We have investigated the fjords of Chile, where many salmon farms are located, searching for fungi able to degrade this tetracycline antibiotic. We have evaluated the OTC degradation ability of the following; Penicillium commune, Epicoccum nigrum, Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus terreus and Beauveria bassiana, isolated from sediments in salmon farms from southern Chile. In all these fungal strains, the amount of OTC decreased in the culture medium, as adsorbed in the mycelia, after the third day of exposure. These strains were capable of degrading OTC at remarkable rates up to 78%, by the 15th day. This is the first study showing that the mycelium of these fungal strains has the ability to degrade OTC. We believe the knowledge produced by these results has the potential to serve as a basis for implementing a bioremediation process in the near future.