Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2021 Apr 16:1-15. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2021.1905186. Online ahead of print.
The occurrence of secondary metabolites and co-contaminants in dairy cow feed samples (n = 115), concentrate, roughage, and mixed feed, collected from Ratchaburi and Kanjanaburi provinces, Thailand, between August 2018 and March 2019 were investigated using LC-MS/MS based multi-toxin method. A total of 113 metabolites were found in the samples. Fungal metabolites were the predominant compounds, followed by plant metabolites. Among major mycotoxins, zearalenone and fumonisins were most frequently detected in concentrate and mixed feed samples, while deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 were found at the frequency lower than 50%. Other metabolites, produced by Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Alternaria species, occurred in the samples. Flavoglaucin, 3-nitropropionic acid, averufin, and sterigmatocystin were the most prevalent Aspergillus metabolites. Common Fusarium metabolites occurring in the samples included moniliformin, beauvericin, and enniatins. For Penicillium metabolites, mycophenolic acid, questiomycin A, quinolactacin A, oxaline, citrinin, and dihydrocitrinone were frequently detected. The toxic Alternaria metabolites, alternariol, and alternariol monomethyl ether showed the high incidence in the samples. Plant metabolites were commonly found, mainly cyanogenic compounds and isoflavones, from cassava and soybean meal used as feed ingredients. Overall, 96.6% of feed samples contained at least two metabolites, in a range from 2 to 69. According to co-contamination of mycotoxins found in feed samples, zearalenone were mostly found in combination with fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, and aflatoxin B1. Fumonisin B1 co-occurred with aflatoxin B1 and deoxynivalenol. The mixtures of deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1, and of zearalenone, fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol were also found. Due to known individual toxicity of fungal and plant metabolites and possible additive or synergistic toxic effects of multi-mycotoxins, the occurrence of these metabolites and co-contaminants should be monitored continuously to ensure food safety through the dairy supply chain.