Cytoskeletal Alteration Is an Early Cellular Response in Pulmonary Epithelium Infected with Aspergillus fumigatus Rather than Scedosporium apiospermum
Microb Ecol. 2021 Apr 22. doi: 10.1007/s00248-021-01750-7. Online ahead of print.
Invasive aspergillosis and scedosporiosis are life-threatening fungal infections with similar clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. Contrarily, Scedosporium apiospermum is susceptible to some azole derivative but often resistant to amphotericin B. Histopathological examination alone cannot diagnose these two fungal species. Pathogenesis studies could contribute to explore candidate protein markers for new diagnosis and treatment methods leading to a decrease in mortality. In the present study, proteomics was conducted to identify significantly altered proteins in A549 cells infected with or without Aspergillus fumigatus and S. apiospermum as measured at initial invasion. Protein validation was performed with immunogold labelling alongside immunohistochemical techniques in infected A549 cells and lungs from murine models. Further, cytokine production was measured, using the Bio-Plex-Multiplex immunoassay. The cytoskeletal proteins HSPA9, PA2G4, VAT1, PSMA2, PEX1, PTGES3, KRT1, KRT9, CLIP1 and CLEC20A were mainly changed during A. fumigatus infection, while the immunologically activated proteins WNT7A, GAPDH and ANXA2 were principally altered during S. apiospermum infection. These proteins are involved in fungal internalisation and structural destruction leading to pulmonary disorders. Interleukin (IL)-21, IL-1α, IL-22, IL-2, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17A, interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α were upregulated in both aspergillosis and scedosporiosis, although more predominately in the latter, in accordance with chitin synthase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase levels. Our results demonstrated that during invasion, A. fumigatus primarily altered host cellular integrity, whereas S. apiospermum chiefly induced and extensively modulated host immune responses.