Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from tangerine (<em>Citrus reticulata</em> L.), grapefruit (<em>Citrus paradisi</em> L.), lemon (<em>Citrus lemon</em> L.) and cinnamon (<em>Cinnamomum zeylanicum</em> Blume)
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci. 2020 Nov 23;76(5-6):175-185. doi: 10.1515/znc-2020-0126. Print 2021 May 26.
The phytochemical and biological properties of tangerine (Citrus reticulata L.), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.), lemon (Citrus lemon L.) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) essential oils were examined. The chemical composition of the essential oils determined using chromatography analysis revealed that D-limonene and cis-cinnamaldehyde were the main components. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils have been studied by the DPPH radical-scavenging assay and the disc-diffusion method, respectively. All essential oils had antimicrobial activity against saprophytic (Bacillus subtilis, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and pathogenic microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans), with the highest inhibitory activity being observed in cinnamon oil, followed by grapefruit zest oil, tangerine zest oil and lemon zest oil; the MIC ranging from 6 to 60 ppm. In addition, they exhibited high antioxidant activity with the highest antioxidant activity being determined for the grapefruit zest essential oil, followed by the lemon zest essential oil, the tangerine zest essential oil and the cinnamon essential oil. The demonstrated promising results for the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the studied essential oils would give reason for their inclusion in the development of bio-preservation strategies for food emulsion preservation.