Transformation of 15-ene steviol by Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella bainieri, and Mortierella isabellina
Phytochemistry. 2021 Apr 29;187:112776. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112776. Online ahead of print.
Transformation of 15-ene steviol (ent-13-hydroxy-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid) by growth cultures of Aspergillus niger BCRC 32720, Cunninghamella bainieri ATCC 9244, and Mortierella isabellina ATCC 38063 was conducted to generate various derivatives for the development of bioactive compounds. Four previously undescribed compounds along with six known compounds were obtained. The newly identified isolates were characterized using 1D and 2D NMR, IR, and HRESIMS, and three compounds were further confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analyses. Subsequently, the effects of 15-ene steviol and its derivatives on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production by THP-1 cells were examined, with dexamethasone used as a positive control. Results indicated that most of the tested compounds showed lower inhibitory effects than those detected in the dexamethasone-treated group, except that 15-ene steviol showed better effects than dexamethasone on the reduction of LPS-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, -2, and -3 release. Three specialized products similarly showed better effects than dexamethasone on the inhibition of LPS-induced secretion of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). Moreover, none of the tested compounds showed any cytotoxicity or triggered cell apoptosis, and none affected the protein integrity of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or MyD88, suggesting that these compounds may exert the anti-inflammatory activity downstream of membrane-associated TLR4 and MyD88 molecules.